|The layout of Appendix II follows essentially that of Appendix I. An
entry is headed by a reconstructed Semitic root in boldface
followed by its meaning. The meaning, like the reconstructed root itself,
is hypothetical and often difficult to pinpoint exactly; hence meanings
are sometimes stated vaguely, and occasionally no meaning at all can be
| rm. To ban, prohibit.|
| bdl. To change,
divide, separate.|| 1|
| If the root is possibly but not
assuredly of Common Semitic ancestry, the subbranch of Semitic for which
it is reconstructible is given first:
| qb. West Semitic, to follow, guard,
| rp2. Arabic root, to be noble,
| In general, only roots and not
actual words are reconstructible for Semitic. If a reconstructed word can
be given, it may take the place of a definition of the root if the root is
only known from the word in question:
| mm. Common Semitic noun *mm-, paternal kinsman, kin, clan, people.
| Following this information is a
list of English words, in SMALL CAPITALS, whose
histories can be traced back to the root. Only those English words that
are entries in the Dictionary are given. If both uncompounded and
compounded words or phrases occur, the uncompounded words are given first
and separated from the compounds by a semicolon. The Semitic word from
which the English words are derived is given next in italics:
| y. . . . SHEIK, from
Arabic ay, old man, chief . . .|
| lm. . . . SHALOM;
SHALOM ALEICHEM, from Hebrew lm, well-being, peace . .
| If the exact Semitic source is not
known, the oldest attested form to which the English word(s) can be traced
is given first:
| qnw. . . .
CANASTA, CANE, CANISTEL, CANISTER . . .
from Greek kanna, reed, from a Semitic source akin to
Akkadian qanû . .
| If intermediate reconstructed
forms are given, as is sometimes necessary, they are preceded by an
asterisk (*) to indicate that they are hypothetical, but assumed to have
existed. Such a reconstructed form, if ancient enough, is given at the
outset of a section before the list of English derivatives:
| rb. . . . 2. Central Semitic noun
*rub-, fourth, quarter. arroba . .
| Intermediate stages that are
attested (such as the stages coming between Arabic arba and English SHERBET) are
given in the etymologies in the main vocabulary of the Dictionary, and not
in the Appendix, as a general rule.
| Entries are broken up into
sections if the English derivatives come from different reconstructed or
attested Semitic forms:
| bn. Common
Semitic noun *bn-, son, and feminine derivative
*bint-, daughter. I. Common Semitic *bn-
. . . II. Common Semitic *bint- . . . |
| brr. . . .
1. BARRIO, from Arabic barr, open (of land) . . . 2. BIRR2, from Amharic brr, coin, silver . .
| Sections of an entry are
themselves divided into subsections if all members of the section
ultimately come from the same word. This word is then given after the
| ntn. . . .
1a. MATTHEW . . . from
mattan, bound form of mattn (< *mantan), gift . . .
b. (i) NATHAN, from
ntn, he (God) gave; (ii) JONATHAN, . . . from ntn, he gave . . . Both a and
b from Hebrew ntan, to give . .
| English derivatives of the same
Semitic word may be listed separately from each other if expository
clarity is thereby gained. Thus, in the following excerpt, schlemiel in
fact ultimately goes back to the same Hebrew word lm given in 1a as the source of SHALOM and SHALOM ALEICHEM, but is
kept separate from it in order to give a gloss to the personal name
| lm. . . . 1a. SHALOM; SHALOM ALEICHEM,
from Hebrew lm, well-being, peace . . . 2. SCHLEMIEL, perhaps from the Hebrew personal
name lmîl, my well-being is God . . .
| Numerous proper nouns in English
have been borrowed from Semitic languages, like the geographical name
Bethlehem and the personal name Joshua. These are treated in
one of two ways. A few, such as the names of selected major biblical
figures (especially those after whom books of the Bible are named), are
given etymologies in the main vocabulary of the Dictionary, with
references to the Appendix as necessary. Others are only given etymologies
in the Appendix, and have been put in it as a special feature of this
work. They are treated about the same as other words but are given fuller
etymological information (since none is given in the main vocabulary of
the Dictionary). When necessary, cross-references to other roots are given
| d. . . . CARTHAGE,
from Phoenician (Punic) *qart-adat, new town, from *adat, feminine singular of *ada, new (*qart, town; see
| In this example, the subentry for
Carthage here shows that the word comes from a Phoenician compound; the
element -adat is fully etymologized here, but the reader is
referred to the entry qr for fuller information on the other
compound member, qart-.
|The following alphabetical order is observed in this Appendix:
| , , b, d, , g, , h, , , k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, , , , , t, , , , w, y, z.